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Bremen, the cosmopolitan city on the Weser river, looks back on over 1, years of history. In the Bremian Prince-Archbishop Hartwig of Uthlede and his bailiff in Bremen confirmed — without generally waiving the prince-archbishop's overlordship over the city — the Gelnhausen Privilege , by which Frederick I Barbarossa granted the city considerable privileges.

The city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship; this also applied to serfs who acquired property, if they lived in the city for a year and a day, after which they were to be regarded as free persons.

Property was to be freely inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremen's later status of imperial immediacy Free Imperial City.

But in reality Bremen did not have complete independence from the Prince-Archbishops: Bremen played a double role: Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought.

In Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In , the number of inhabitants reached 20, Around this time the Hansekogge cog ship became a unique product of Bremen.

In return, Albert confirmed the city's privileges and brokered a peace between the city and Gerhard III, Count of Hoya , who since had held some burghers of Bremen in captivity.

The city had to bail them out. In an extra tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the burghers and artisans that was put down by the city council after much bloodshed.

In , Albert II tried to take advantage of the dispute between Bremen's city council and the guilds , whose members had expelled some city councillors from the city.

When these councillors appealed to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city.

The fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. The city reserved an extra very narrow gate, the so-called Bishop's Needle Latin: Acus episcopi , first mentioned in , for all clergy, including the Prince-Archbishop.

The narrowness of the gate made it physically impossible for him to enter surrounded by his knights. Nevertheless, on the night of 29 May , Albert's troops, helped by some burghers, invaded the city.

Afterward, the city had to again render him homage: In return, the new council granted Albert a credit amounting to the then-enormous sum of 20, Bremen marks.

But city councillors of the previous council, who had fled to the County of Oldenburg , gained the support of the counts and recaptured the city on June 27, The members of the intermediate council were regarded as traitors and beheaded, and the city de facto regained its autonomy.

Thereupon, the city of Bremen, which had for a long time held an autonomous status, acted almost completely independent of the Prince-Archbishop.

Albert failed to obtain control over the city of Bremen a second time, since he was always short of money and lacked the support of his family, the Welfs , who were preparing for and fighting the Lüneburg War of Succession — By the end of the s Bremen had provided credit to Albert II to finance his lavish lifestyle, and gained in return the fortress of Vörde along with the dues levied in its bailiwick as guarantee for the credit.

In Bremen again lent money to Albert II against the collateral of his mint, which was from then on run by the city council, which took over his right to mint coins.

In Bremen purchased from Duke Frederick I of Brunswick-Lüneburg many of the Prince-Archbishop's castles, which Albert had pledged as security for a loan to Frederick's predecessor.

Thus Bremen gained a powerful position in the Prince-Archbishopric ecclesiastical principality , in effect sidelining its actual ruler. The declining knightly family of Bederkesa had become deeply indebted, [8]: They lost the rest of their claims to the city of Bremen, when in its troops prevented the three Mandelsloh brothers from lending them to Albert II as territorial power.

In the city's troops successfully ended the brigandage and captured the Castle of Bederkesa and its bailiwick. Thus Bremen gained a foothold to uphold peace and order in its forecourt on the lower course of the Weser.

In the city of Bremen became the liege lord of the noble families holding the estates of Altluneburg and Elmlohe , who had previously been vassals of the Knights of Bederkesa.

The city replaced in the old wooden statue of Roland , which had been destroyed in by the Bederkesa, with a larger limestone model; this statue has managed to survive six centuries and two World Wars into the 21st.

In the jointly ruling dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg , Eric IV and his sons Eric V and John IV , pawned their share in the Bederkesa bailiwick and castle to the Senate of Bremen , including all "they have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe Bremerhaven , which belongs to the aforementioned castle and Vogtei".

During the s, Bremen was often in conflict with the Dutch states. The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy.

These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea and captured numerous vessels. One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd "Big Gerry" , captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.

In the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown.

When the Protestant Reformation swept through Northern Germany , St Peter's cathedral belonged to the cathedral immunity district German: In , the cathedral chapter which was still Catholic at that time closed St Peter's after a mob consisting of Bremen's burghers had forcefully interrupted a Catholic Mass and prompted a pastor to hold a Lutheran service.

In , the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation.

Rizaeus turned out to be a partisan of the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord's Supper , which was rejected by the then Lutheran majority of burghers, the city council, and chapter.

So in — after heated disputes — Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors.

However, as a consequence of that controversy the majority of Bremen's burghers and city council adopted Calvinism by the s, while the chapter, which was at the same time the body of secular government in the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric, clung to Lutheranism.

This antagonism between a Calvinistic majority and a Lutheran minority, though it had a powerful position in its immunity district mediatised as part of the city in , remained dominant until in the Calvinist and Lutheran congregations of Bremen were reconciled and founded a united administrative umbrella Bremen Protestant Church , which still exists today, comprising the bulk of Bremen's burghers.

At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.

Soon after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War Bremen declared its neutrality, as did most of the territories in the Lower Saxon Circle.

John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen.

When in the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , which was fighting in the Eighty Years' War for its independence against Habsburg 's Spanish and imperial forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist Bremen to join them, the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications.

In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.

The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.

Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic League , in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg and the Lübeck and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles.

The idea was to win Sweden 's and Denmark 's support, both of which had for a long time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League. Christian IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge, on 27 August , where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under Johan 't Serclaes, Count of Tilly.

Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade. Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part.

Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications. In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege.

The city remained unoccupied throughout the war. In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.

The Chapter refused, arguing first that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates.

The anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from the Lutheran Chapter to the Roman Catholic Church.

Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church.

The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.

The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.

In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen.

John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.

With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.

Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege. Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.

With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.

Early in , Bremen-Verden's Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.

This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. They became the first club to charge spectators a fee to attend their games and to fence in their playing field.

The relationship was short-lived, however, and the club went its own way again less than two months later. Steady growth after World War I led the club to adopt other sports and, on 19 January , change their name to the current Sportverein Werder Bremen.

Football remained their primary interest, so much so that in , they became the first German club to hire a professional coach. The team made regular appearances in year-end NFV qualification round play through the s and on into the early s, but did not enjoy any success.

German football was re-organized under the Third Reich in into 16 first division leagues known as Gauligen and Werder became part of the Gauliga Niedersachsen.

The club scored its first real successes, capturing division titles in , , and , and took part for the first time in national level playoff competition.

The shape of the Gauligen changed through the course of World War II and in , the Gauliga Niedersachsen was split into two divisions.

As the war overtook the country, the Gauligen became progressively more local in character. Werder' s —45 season was cut short after just two matches.

Like other organizations throughout Germany, the club was disbanded on the order of the occupying Allied authorities after the war.

The team played in the Stadtliga Bremen, and after capturing the title there, participated in the northern German championship round, advancing to the quarter-finals.

They were able to reclaim the name SV Werder on 25 March before taking part in the playoffs. At the time, professionals were not permitted to play in the German game, so it was normal for football players to take on other jobs, often with the club's local patron.

In the case of Werder, a number of the players worked at the nearby Brinkmann tobacco factory, and so the side took on the nickname Texas 11 after one of the company's popular cigarette brands.

Between the end of WW2 and the formation of the Bundesliga in , the club continued to do well, being recognized as one of the top two teams in northern Germany, along with Hamburger SV.

In , they managed their first DFB-Pokal win. Their performance was good enough to earn them a place as a charter member of the Bundesliga, and in the league's second season, Werder took the championship.

They earned a second-place finish in the —68, but then languished in the bottom half of the table for a dozen years. An attempt to improve their lot by signing high-priced talent earned the side the new, derisive nickname of the Millionaires and turned out to be an expensive failure.

The club dropped out of the Bundesliga for the first and only time, being relegated to the 2nd Bundesliga-Nord for the —81 season after a 17th-place finish.

Werder Bremen recovered themselves under the direction of newly hired coach Otto Rehhagel , who led the side to a string of successes: Bundesliga runners-up in , and , champions in ; appearances in the final of the DFB-Pokal in and with a win there in ; followed by victory in the European Cup Winners' Cup in Rehhagel left the club in June after this impressive run for a short-lived turn as coach of Bayern Munich.

The impact of Rehhagel's departure was felt immediately, and a succession of coaches Aad de Mos , Dixie Dörner , Wolfgang Sidka and Felix Magath led the club into a critical position.

In May , former defender and amateur coach Thomas Schaaf took over the team and stopped a slide toward relegation and led the team to a cup victory only weeks later.

The team's performance stabilized in the following seasons as they regularly finished in the upper half of the table. Their performance qualified them for the —05 Champions League play and they advanced to the Round of 16 before a dismal exit on a 10—2 aggregate to French side Olympique Lyonnais.

Werder again qualified for the Champions League in , this time through a third place Bundesliga result following a difficult injury-prone season.

They once more advanced to the Round of 16, this time being put out by Italian club Juventus on away goals after a 4—4 aggregate score.

A second place in the league ensured the third consecutive Champions League qualification for Werder Bremen. In the —07 season , Werder Bremen claimed the "winter champions" title, being the first place team in the Bundesliga before the winter break period, but eventually came in third behind VfB Stuttgart and Schalke As in the previous season, Bremen finished third in the Champions League, but this time lost in the Round of 16 to Scottish club Rangers.

A vice-championship in the Bundesliga qualified Werder for their fifth consecutive Champions League attendance.

Bremen struggled in their —09 Bundesliga campaign, eventually finishing tenth, their worst league performance in more than a decade. Nevertheless, Bremen made it to the UEFA Cup final after yet another third-place finish in the group stage of the Champions League , as well as the national cup final.

Werder Bremen has a long-standing rivalry with northern German club Hamburger SV , [11] another major club in northern Germany, [12] known as the Nordderby and other big clubs like Bayern Munich in particular.

In the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown.

When the Protestant Reformation swept through Northern Germany , St Peter's cathedral belonged to the cathedral immunity district German: In , the cathedral chapter which was still Catholic at that time closed St Peter's after a mob consisting of Bremen's burghers had forcefully interrupted a Catholic Mass and prompted a pastor to hold a Lutheran service.

In , the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation.

Rizaeus turned out to be a partisan of the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord's Supper , which was rejected by the then Lutheran majority of burghers, the city council, and chapter.

So in — after heated disputes — Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors.

However, as a consequence of that controversy the majority of Bremen's burghers and city council adopted Calvinism by the s, while the chapter, which was at the same time the body of secular government in the neighbouring Prince-Archbishopric, clung to Lutheranism.

This antagonism between a Calvinistic majority and a Lutheran minority, though it had a powerful position in its immunity district mediatised as part of the city in , remained dominant until in the Calvinist and Lutheran congregations of Bremen were reconciled and founded a united administrative umbrella Bremen Protestant Church , which still exists today, comprising the bulk of Bremen's burghers.

At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.

Soon after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War Bremen declared its neutrality, as did most of the territories in the Lower Saxon Circle. John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen.

When in the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , which was fighting in the Eighty Years' War for its independence against Habsburg 's Spanish and imperial forces, requested its Calvinist co-religionist Bremen to join them, the city refused, but started to reinforce its fortifications.

In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.

The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.

Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. But soon after this the imperial troops under Albrecht von Wallenstein headed north in an attempt to destroy the fading Hanseatic League , in order to reduce the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg and the Lübeck and to establish a Baltic trade monopoly, to be run by some imperial favourites including Spaniards and Poles.

The idea was to win Sweden 's and Denmark 's support, both of which had for a long time sought the destruction of the Hanseatic League. Christian IV ordered his troops to capture all the important traffic hubs in the Prince-Archbishopric and commenced the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge, on 27 August , where he was defeated by the Leaguist troops under Johan 't Serclaes, Count of Tilly.

Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade. Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part.

Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications. In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege.

The city remained unoccupied throughout the war. In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.

The Chapter refused, arguing first that the order had not been authorised and later that due to disputes with Bremen's city council, they could not freely travel to render an account, let alone do the necessary research on the estates.

The anti-Catholic attitudes of Bremen's burghers and council was to make it completely impossible to prepare the restitution of estates from the Lutheran Chapter to the Roman Catholic Church.

Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. Bremen's city council ordered that the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates within the boundaries of the unoccupied city were not to be restituted to the Catholic Church.

The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.

The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.

In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen.

John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.

With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.

Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege.

Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.

With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.

Early in , Bremen-Verden's Swedish troops captured Bremerlehe by force. When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.

This treaty left the main issue, the acceptance of the city of Bremen's imperial immediacy, unresolved. But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.

In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.

From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in In , the French — as they retreated — withdrew from Bremen.

Johann Smidt , Bremen's representative at the Congress of Vienna , was successful in achieving the non-mediatisation of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck , by which they were not incorporated into neighbouring monarchies, but became sovereign republics.

Bremen joined the North German Confederation in and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors.

The first German steamship was manufactured in in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In , Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover , to establish the city of Bremerhaven Port of Bremen as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up.

Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd. In , the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded. Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in ; the aircraft construction company as of [update] forms part of Airbus , [ citation needed ] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft.

Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in , and is today part of Daimler AG. In the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone.

In , Martin Mende founded Nordmende , a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until OHB-System , a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded in The University of Bremen , founded in , is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23, people from countries.

Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser , about 60 kilometres 37 miles upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven.

Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to ocean-going vessels.

The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle.

The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres 24 miles long and 16 kilometres 10 miles wide. In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany see: List of cities in Germany.

Bremen lies about 50 kilometres 31 miles east of the city of Oldenburg , kilometres 68 miles southwest of Hamburg , kilometres 75 miles northwest of Hanover , kilometres 62 miles north of Minden and kilometres 65 miles northeast of Osnabrück.

Part of Bremerhaven 's port territory forms an exclave of the City of Bremen. The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is Bremen has a moderate oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb due to its proximity to the North Sea coast and temperate maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean.

However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter.

The record high temperature was Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0.

As in most parts of Germany, the year has been the warmest year on record averaging Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.

Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year counting 84 days with a snow cover.

The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.

Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December The Stadtbürgerschaft municipal assembly is made up of 68 of the 83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft , who reside in the city of Bremen.

The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years. Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city.

This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections.

The state of Bremen , which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens.

One of the two mayors Bürgermeister is elected President of the Senate Präsident des Senats and serves as head of the city and the state.

The current president is Carsten Sieling. More contemporary tourist attractions include:. The skyscraper Weser Tower designed by Helmut Jahn.

The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard. Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg.

It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place.

Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus A production, assembly of the landing flaps high lift systems is carried out here.

The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section excluding the cockpit of the AM military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain. More than 3, persons are employed at Airbus Bremen, the second largest Airbus site in Germany.

The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line.

In addition, Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence — Fuselage and Cabin.

In past centuries when Bremen's port was the "key to Europe", the city also had a large number of wine importers, but the number is down to a precious few.

Apart from that there is another link between Bremen and wine: The largest wine cellar in the world is located in Bremen below the city's main square , which was once said to hold over 1 million bottles, but during WWII was raided by occupying forces.

A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen with their German or European headquarters: Bremer Woll-Kämmerei BWK , a worldwide operating company for manufacturing wool and trading in wool and similar products, is headquartered in Bremen.

It has been in operation since The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen-Lower Saxony Transport Association , whose tariff structure applies.

Bremen is home to the football team Werder Bremen , who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in , making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in Only Bayern Munich has won more titles.

In the final match of the —10 season, Werder Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen is the Weserstadion , a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells.

It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy. With students, [47] the University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut and the Fallturm Bremen.

In , the private Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: Bremen is twinned with: Edit Read in another language Bremen.

This article is about the German city. For the German state consisting of Bremen and Bremerhaven, see Bremen state. For other uses, see Bremen disambiguation.

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Bremen. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

Bremen state election, Many of the sights in Bremen are found in the Altstadt Old Town , an oval area surrounded by the Weser River, on the southwest, and the Wallgraben , the former moats of the medieval city walls, on the northeast.

De kerstmarkt van Dusseldorf Keulen is een geweldige stad met een hele mooie kerstmarkt. De kerstmarkt van keulen Traditionele kerstmarkt, vlakbij Maastricht.

De kerstmarkt van Aken Deze kerstmarkt is lekker dichtbij. De kerstmarkt van Oberhausen Populair onder inwoners in het oosten van het land!

De kerstmarkt van Munster. Weihnachtsmarkt Wist je dat? In het Duits heet een kerstmarkt een weihnachtsmarkt. Vaak worden er naast kerstmarkten ook wintermarkten gehouden.

Op koopzondagen is het vaak druk. Op dodenherdenking in Duitsland Totensonntag gaan de kerstmarkten vaak eerder dicht of zijn ze geheel gesloten 26 nov Welke kerstmarkten zijn nog meer leuk?

Onze oosterburen weten als geen ander hoe ze een leuke kerstmarkt moeten neerzetten. Maar ook in Antwerpen, Brussel, Maastricht en Valkenburg is het in de periode voorafgaand aan kerst heel gezellig!

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